Oct 052011
 

SQL Server API cursor was designed for data access components years ago. It’s sharing the same framework of T-SQL cursors with more powerful features, such as create cursor over a return set from a procedure. This article lists procedures for API cursor. They are undocumented and deprecated. Please use them in caution. The major part of this article is copied it from http://jtds.sourceforge.net/apiCursors.html.

Stored Procedures for API Cursor

This document contains information on undocumented stored procedures in Microsoft SQL Server.

Name Function
sp_cursor Update a cursor
sp_cursorclose close a cursor
sp_cursorexecute Open a prepared cursor
sp_cursorfetch Fetch rows
sp_cursoropen Open a cursor
sp_cursoroption Set cursor options
sp_cursorprepare Prepare a cursor statement
sp_cursorprepexec Prepare a cursor statement and open
sp_cursorunprepare Free a prepared cursor statement
sp_execute Execute a prepared statement
sp_prepare Prepare an SQL statement
sp_prepexec Prepare and execute an SQL statement
sp_unprepare Free a prepared statement

sp_cursoropen

Defines the attributes of an API server cursor, such as its scrolling behavior and the statement used to build the result set on which the cursor operates, then populates the cursor. The statement can contain embedded parameters.

Syntax

sp_cursoropen [@cursor =] cursor_handle OUTPUT, [@stmt =] ‘stmt‘ [, [@scrollopt =]scroll_options OUTPUT][, [@ccopt =]concurrency_options OUTPUT][, [@rowcount =]rowcount OUTPUT][{, [@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type[,…n]’ }{, [@param1 =] value1[,…n] }]

Arguments
[@cursor =] cursor_handleOUTPUT
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the cursor handle.
cursor_handle is int, with no default.
[@stmt =] ‘stmt
Is a string containing a single SELECT statement or a single stored procedure call. The size of the string is limited only by available database server memory. stmt can contain parameters having the same form as a variable name, for example:'SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID = @IDParameter' Each parameter included in stmt must have a corresponding entry in both the @paramdef parameter definition list and the parameter values list.
[@scrollopt =] scroll_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor scroll type. scroll_options is int with a
default of 1 (keyset-driven), and can be a combination of these values (exactly one of the first 5 must be specified).

Value Description
0x0001 Keyset-driven cursor.
0x0002 Dynamic cursor.
0x0004 Forward-only cursor.
0x0008 Static cursor.
0x0010 Fast forward-only cursor.
0x1000 Parameterized query.
0x2000 Auto fetch.
0x4000 Auto close.
0x8000 Check acceptable types.
0x10000 Keyset-driven acceptable.
0x20000 Dynamic acceptable.
0x40000 Forward-only acceptable.
0x80000 Static acceptable.
0x100000 Fast forward-only acceptable.

On return,
@scrollopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.

[@ccopt =] concurrency_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor concurrency. concurrency_options is strong>int, with a default of 4 (optimistic) and can be a combination of these values (exactly one of the first 4 must be specified).

Value Description
0x0001 Read-only.
0x0002 Scroll locks.
0x0004 Optimistic. Checks timestamps and, when not available, values.
0x0008 Optimistic. Checks values (non-text, non-image).
0x2000 Open on any SQL.
0x4000 Update keyset in place.
0x10000 Read-only acceptable.
0x20000 Locks acceptable.
0x40000 Optimistic acceptable.

On return, @ccopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.

[@rowcount =] rowcountOUTPUT
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the number of affected rows. rowcount is intwith no default value.
[@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type, …n]’
Is one string that contains the definitions of all parameters that have been embedded in stmt. Each parameter definition consists of a parameter name and a data type. n is a placeholder indicating additional parameter definitions. Every parameter specified in stmt must be defined in @paramdef. If the Transact-SQL statement in stmt does not contain parameters, @paramdef is not needed. The default value for this parameter is NULL.
[@param1 =] value1
Is a value for the first parameter defined in the parameter string. The value can be a constant or a variable. There must be a parameter value supplied for every parameter included in stmt. The values are not needed if the Transact-SQL statement in stmthas no parameters.
n
Is a placeholder for the values of additional parameters. Values can be only constants or variables. Values cannot be more complex expressions such as functions, or expressions built using operators.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

Returns the result set generated by stmt, but containing no rows.

Remarks

sp_cursoropen is a more powerful (and programmatic) way of creating server-side cursors on SQL Server.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Examples
A. Create a cursor for a simple SELECT statement

This simple example creates a dynamic read-only cursor for a SELECT statement with no parameters.
USE pubs
-- Create a dynamc read-only cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, N'SELECT * FROM myTable', 2, 8193
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

B. Create a cursor for a parameterized SELECT statement

This example creates a dynamic read-only cursor for a SELECT statement with 2 parameters.
USE pubs
-- Create a dynamc read-only cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, N'SELECT * FROM myTable WHERE col1=@P1 AND col2 LIKE @P2', 2, 8193, N'@P1 INT, @P2 VARCHAR(255)', 10, '%x%'
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

C. Create a cursor for a stored procedure call

This example creates a dynamic read-only cursor for a stored procedure with 2 parameters (the procedure must return only one result set or the cursor creation
will fail). Note that output parameters can also be used and return values retrieved via output parameters.
USE pubs
-- Create a dynamc read-only cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
DECLARE @retval INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, 'EXEC @P1=myProc @P2', 2, 8193, N'@P1 INT OUTPUT, @P2 INT', @retval, 1
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

sp_cursorfetch

Fetches a row or block of rows from an API server cursor.

Syntax

sp_cursorfetch [@cursor =] cursor_handle[,[@fetchtype =] fetchtype][, [@rownum =]rownum OUTPUT][, [@nrows =] nrows OUTPUT]

Arguments
[@cursor =] cursor_handle
Is the cursor handle. cursor_handle is int, with no default.
[@fetchtype =] fetchtype
Is the fetch type. fetchtype is int, with a default of 2 and can have one of these values.

Value Description
0x0001 First row.
0x0002 Next row.
0x0004 Previous row.
0x0008 Last row.
0x0010 Absolute row index.
0x0020 Relative row index.
0x0040 By value (???).
0x0080 Refresh.
0x0100 Result set info.
0x0200 Previous noadjust (?).
0x0400 Skip update concurrency (???).
[@rownum =] rownumOUTPUT
Is the row number. rownum is int, with a default of NULL.
[@nrows =] nrowsOUTPUT
Is the number of rows to fetch. nrows is int, with a default of NULL (fetch all rows).
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

Returns the requested row or group of rows from the cursor.

Remarks

In addition to fetching rows, the ‘result set info’ fetch type can be used to retrieve information about the cursor (current row in @rownum and total number of rows in @nrows).

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

USE pubs
-- Create a dynamc read-only cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, 'SELECT * FROM myTable', 2, 8193
-- Fetch the next 3 lines
EXEC sp_cursorfetch @cursor, 2, 0, 3
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

sp_cursorclose

Closes ande deallocates an API server cursor.

Syntax

sp_cursorclose [@cursor =] cursor_handle

Arguments
[@cursor =] cursor_handle
Is a cursor handle obtained by calling sp_cursorcreate. cursor_handle is int, with no default.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

USE pubs
-- Create a dynamic read-only cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, 'SELECT * FROM myTable', 2, 8193
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

sp_cursoroption

Sets various options for API server cursors.

Syntax

sp_cursoroption [@cursor =] cursor_handle,[@code =] code,{ [@value=] value | [@cursorname =] cursorname }

Arguments
[@cursor =] cursor_handle
Is a cursor handle obtained by calling sp_cursorcreate. cursor_handle is int, with no default.
[@code =] code
Is the option code. code is int, with no default and can be one of these values.

Value Description
1 Only return the TEXTPTR of the LOB column specified by value
2 Set cursor name.
[@value =] value
Is the value of the selected option (for option 1 it’s the index of the LOB column). value is int, with no default.
[@cursorname =] cursorname
Is the name for the cursor. cursorname is sysname, with no default.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

USE pubs
-- Create a dynamc cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, 'SELECT * FROM myTable', 2, 8193
-- Name the cursor
EXEC sp_cursoroption @cursor, 2, 'myCursor'
-- Use a cursor variable to access the cursor
DECLARE @x CURSOR
EXEC sp_describe_cursor @x out, N'global','myCursor'
FETCH NEXT FROM @x
-- Use the cursor directly by name
FETCH NEXT FROM myCursor
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

sp_cursor

Can be used to request inserts and positioned updates or deletes on API server cursors.

Syntax

sp_cursor [@cursor =] cursor_handle, [@optype=] optype,[@rownum =] rownum,[@table=] ‘table‘{, [@param1 =] value1 [,…n] }

Arguments
[@cursor =] cursor_handle
Is a cursor handle obtained by calling sp_cursorcreate. cursor_handle is int, with no default.
[@optype =] optype
Is a the operation to perform. optype is int, with no default and can be one of these values.

Value Description
1 Update row (?).
4 Insert row.
33 Update row.
34 Delete row.
[@rownum =] rownum
Is the number of the row to update in the fetch cache. rownum is int, with no default.
[@table =] ‘table
Is the name of the table to update (an empty character string seems to be ok). table is sysname, with no default.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

USE pubs
-- Create a dynamc cursor
DECLARE @cursor INT
EXEC sp_cursoropen @cursor OUTPUT, 'SELECT * FROM myTable', 2, 8193
-- Fetch the next 2 lines; this puts lines 1 and 2 in the fetch buffer
EXEC sp_cursorfetch @cursor, 2, 0, 2
-- Update the second line in the fetch buffer
EXEC sp_cursor @cursor, 33, 2, '', @intCol=5, @charCol='x'
-- Close the cursor
EXEC sp_cursorclose @cursor

sp_cursorprepare

Used to prepare a parameterized cursor statement.

Syntax

sp_cursorprepare [@cursor =] statement_handle OUTPUT, [@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type[,…n]’,[@stmt =] N’stmt‘,[@options=] options,[, [@scrollopt =] scroll_optionsOUTPUT][, [@ccopt =] concurrency_optionsOUTPUT]

Arguments
[@cursor =] statement_handle
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the statement handle. statement_handle is int, with no default.
[@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type, …n]’
Is one string that contains the definitions of all parameters that have been embedded in stmt. Each parameter definition consists of a parameter name and a data type. n is a placeholder indicating additional parameter definitions. Every parameter specified in stmt must be defined in @paramdef.
[@stmt =] ‘stmt
Is a string containing a single SELECT statement or a single stored procedure call. The size of the string is limited only by available database server memory. stmt can contain parameters having the same form as a variable name, for example:'SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID = @IDParameter'Each parameter included in stmt must have a corresponding entry in both the @paramdef parameter definition list.
[@options =] options
An integer value. The exact function of this parameter is unknown. options is int, with a value of 1.
[@scrollopt =] scroll_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor scroll type. scroll_options is int with a default of 1 (keyset-driven). See sp_cursoropen for more information. On return, @scrollopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.
[@ccopt =] concurrency_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor concurrency. concurrency_options is int, with a default of 4 (optimistic). See sp_cursoropen for more information. On return, @ccopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_cursorprepexec

Used to prepare and open a parameterized cursor statement. This command combines the functions of the sp_cursorprepare and sp_cursorexecute procedures
and is available from SQL2000 onwards.

Syntax

sp_cursorprepexec [@handle =] statement_handle OUTPUT, [@cursor =] cursor_handle OUTPUT, [@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type, [,…n]’ [@stmt =] N’stmt‘, [, [@scrollopt =] scroll_options OUTPUT] [, [@ccopt =] concurrency_options OUTPUT] [, [@rowcount =]
rowcount OUTPUT]

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the statement handle.
statement_handle is int, with no default.
[@cursor =] cursor_handleOUTPUT
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the cursor handle. cursor_handle is int, with no default.
[@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type [,…n]’
Is one string that contains the definitions of all parameters that have been embedded in stmt. Each parameter definition consists of a parameter name and a data type. n is a placeholder indicating additional parameter
definitions. Every parameter specified in stmt must be defined in @paramdef.
[@stmt] ‘stmt
Is a string containing a single SELECT statement or a single stored procedure call. The size of the string is limited only by available database server memory. stmt can contain parameters having the same form as a variable name, for example:'SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID =@IDParameter'Each parameter included in stmt must have a corresponding entry in both the @paramdef parameter definition list.
[@scrollopt =] scroll_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor scroll type.scroll_options is int with a default of 1 (keyset-driven). See sp_cursoropen for more information. On return, @scrollopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.
[@ccopt =]concurrency_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor concurrency. concurrency_options is int, with a default of 4 (optimistic). See sp_cursoropen for more information. On return, @ccopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.
[@rowcount =] rowcountOUTPUT
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the number of affectedrows. rowcount is int with no default value.

Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

Returns the result set generated by stmt, but containing no rows.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_cursorexecute

Used to execute (open) a prepared cursor statement.

Syntax

sp_cursorexecute [@handle =] statement_handle, [@cursor =] cursor_handle OUTPUT,
[, [@scrollopt =] scroll_options OUTPUT] [, [@ccopt =] concurrency_options OUTPUT] [, [@rowcount =] rowcount OUTPUT] {, [@param1 =] value1
[,…n] }

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the integer value of the statement handle. statement_handle is
int, with no default.
[@cursor =] cursor_handleOUTPUT
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the cursor handle. cursor_handle is int, with no default.
[@scrollopt =] scroll_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor scroll type. scroll_options is int with a default of 1 (keyset-driven). See sp_cursoropen for more information. On return, @scrollopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.
[@ccopt =] concurrency_optionsOUTPUT
Is the cursor concurrency. concurrency_options is int, with a default of 4 (optimistic). See sp_cursoropen for more information. On return, @ccopt contains the type of cursor actually created, which may not match what was requested.
[@rowcount =] rowcountOUTPUT
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the number of affected rows. rowcount is intwith no default value.
[@param1 =] value1
Is a value for the first parameter defined in the parameter string. The
value can be a constant or a variable. There must be a parameter value supplied for every parameter included in stmt. The values are not needed if the
Transact-SQL statement in stmthas no parameters.
n
Is a placeholder for the values of additional parameters. Values can be only constants or variables. Values cannot be more complex expressions such as functions, or expressions built using operators.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

Returns the result set generated by the prepared statement handle, but containing no rows.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_cursorunprepare

Used to free a prepared cursor statement.

Syntax

sp_cursorunprepare [@handle =] statement_handle

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the integer value of the statement handle. statement_handle is int, with no default.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_prepare

Used to prepare a parameterized SQL statement.

Syntax

sp_prepare [@handle =] statement_handle OUTPUT, [@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type [,…n]’, [@stmt =] N’stmt‘, [@flag =] flag,

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the statement handle. statement_handle is int, with no default.
[@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type, …n]’
Is one string that contains the definitions of all parameters that have been embedded in stmt. Each parameter definition consists of a parameter name and a data type. n is a placeholder indicating additional parameter definitions. Every parameter specified in stmt must be defined in @paramdef.
[@stmt =] ‘stmt
Is a string containing a single SELECT statement or a single stored procedure call. The size of the string is limited only by available database server memory. stmt can contain parameters having the same form as a variable name, for example:'SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID = @IDParameter'Each parameter included in stmt must have a corresponding entry in both the @paramdef parameter definition list.
[@flag =] flag
An integer value. The exact function of this flag is unknown. flag is int, with value of 1.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_execute

Used to execute a prepared SQL statement.

Syntax

sp_execute [@handle =] statement_handle{,[@param1 =] value1 [,…n] }

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the integer value of the statement handle. statement_handle is
int, with no default.
[@param1 =] value1
Is a value for the first parameter defined in the parameter string. The value can be a constant or a variable. There must be a parameter value supplied for every parameter included in prepared statement handle. The values are not needed if the Transact-SQL statement in stmthas no parameters.
n
Is a placeholder for the values of additional parameters. Values can be only constants or variables. Values cannot be more complex expressions such as
functions, or expressions built using operators.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

Returns a result set if specified by the prepared statement.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_unprepare

Used to free a prepared SQL statement.

Syntax

sp_unprepare [@handle =] statement_handle

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the integer value of the statement handle. statement_handle is int, with no default.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

None.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

sp_prepexec

Used to prepare and execute a parameterized SQL statement. This command combines the functions of the sp_prepare and sp_execute procedures and is
available from SQL2000 onwards.

Syntax

sp_prepexec [@handle =] statement_handle OUTPUT, [@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type, [,…n]’ [@stmt =] N’stmt‘, {, [@param1 =] value1 [,…n] }

Arguments
[@handle =] statement_handle
Is the name of a declared integer variable to receive the statement handle. statement_handle is int, with no default.
[@paramdef =] N’parameter_name data_type,…n]’
Is one string that contains the definitions of all parameters that have been embedded in stmt. Each parameter definition consists of a parameter name and a data type. n is a placeholder indicating additional parameter definitions. Every parameter specified in stmt must be defined in @paramdef.
[@stmt =] ‘stmt
Is a string containing a valid SQL statement. The size of the string is limited only by available database server memory. stmt can contain parameters having the same form as a variable name, for example:'SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID = @IDParameter'Each parameter included in stmt must have a corresponding entry in both the @paramdef parameter definition list.
[@param1 =]value1
Is a value for the first parameter defined in the parameter string. The value can be a constant or a variable. There must be a parameter value supplied for every parameter included in stmt. The values are not needed if the Transact-SQL statement in stmthas no parameters.
n
Is a placeholder for the values of additional parameters. Values can be only constants or variables. Values cannot be more complex expressions such as functions, or expressions built using operators.
Return Code Values

0 (success) or 1 (failure).

Result Sets

Returns a result set if specified by the prepared statement.

Permissions

Execute permissions default to the public role.

Example

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